Are you born or are you made?
Are you born with a talent or a condition, or can you acquire them throughout your life? A question and a classic debate which has scientific answers.
KNOW YOURSELF1 June 2019
Curiosity about what makes us the way we are goes back a long way in history. Throughout history, psychology has been concerned with developing theories about how a personality is formed, combining this term with those of temperament and character. Some place more emphasis on genetic or temperamental aspects, and others on environmental or character aspects.
- Temperament is formed by inherited predispositions that remain stable throughout development and are not modified through learning processes.
These predispositions could be: avoidance of harm, search for novelty, dependence on rewards and persistence.
- Character is structured throughout development through learned socio-cultural mechanisms, such as values and beliefs, goals, coping strategies, etc. That is to say, the set of characteristics that each one has is formed are based on the experiences they have lived.
- Personality is nourished by both, and can be defined as the set of characteristics possessed by a person that uniquely influence their thinking, their motivation and their behaviour in certain situations. Although it is one of the most studied concepts in psychology, it still does not have a single definition that is accepted by the entire scientific community.
Innate vs learned
When we talk about someone we usually use only some of his personality traits to define him, the most outstanding, or the one that most influences us. For example, one could say of someone they are a real perfectionist because that is one of the most visible characteristics of their behaviour.
But the reality is that we are a set of traits, both physical and psychological, that have been configured throughout our development. They are all important because they help us to adapt to the world and ultimately to live in it.
This set of traits lead us towards particular ways of perceiving things, of interpreting them, of feeling them and of acting on them. It is a dynamic process that is not completely determined either by our genetics or by our experiences.
Although the personality traits generated since childhood are quite resistant to change, we can all change what we learn and replace it with alternatives. Self-knowledge is important in order to adapt to these changes.
The Personality Enneagram is a very useful self-awareness tool. It was developed by psychologists Óscar Ichazo and Claudio Naranjo and is used by psychologists and psychiatrists in therapy, as well as by companies for the development of self-leadership and emotional intelligence.
It is a way of classifying the personality through nine basic types. These are combined according to two factors: the way in which the interpersonal relationship is approached and internal mental feelings.
When stressful or unfavourable situations are experienced, a person may present a displacement of attitude or basic temperament which can be overcome through personal work and self-discipline.
TIPOS DE ENEGRAMA DE LA PERSONALIDAD
Son personas perfeccionistas, autoexigentes y críticas consigo mismas. Tienden a frustrarse y a acumular altos niveles de ira interior. Suelen pensar que su punto de vista es el acertado.
Son las personas centradas en ayudar a los demás. Necesitan mucho afecto y piensan que cuanto más ayuden más les querrán. Les gusta sentirse necesitadas.
Personas que necesitan sentirse valoradas. Centradas en el éxito y muy pendientes de su imagen. Suelen ser muy productivas y conseguir lo que se proponen.
Son personas con una sensibilidad especial, suelen sentirse diferentes a los demás. Tienen altibajos emocionales al sentirse incomprendidas. Son empáticas y creativas.
Suelen ser personas autosuficientes que se sienten incómodas hablando de sentimientos. Son muy claras y comprenden con facilidad, acumulan información pero les cuesta pasar a la acción.
Son personas cargadas de miedos que temen tomar decisiones, les invade la ansiedad por posibles problemas futuros. Pueden parecer seguras, pero les invade la incertidumbre. Suelen ser buenos amigos.
Son personas divertidas que buscan el disfrute, que temen sufrir. Son entretenidas y positivas. Huyendo de situaciones dolorosas pueden no comprometerse y no profundizar en nada.
Se guían por el sentido de la justicia, quieren tener el control y les gusta estar al mando sin someterse a la voluntad de los demás. Son líderes y tienen fuerte personalidad.
Son personas pacificadoras que huyen del conflicto, no saben lidiar con el enfado. Tienden a infravalorarse y les cuesta mucho expresar sus necesidades.